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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Manuscript Info Abstract ……………………. It is the Spanish- Received: He has been awarded for Final Accepted: The novel is about the Published: February industrial, social and economic changes the city of Barcelona saw during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Since this fiction appeared to me as Key words: This new class was of merchants and industrialists. They were called the Bourgeoisie class. The twentieth century Barcelona witnessed the development of the bourgeoisie that built and managed the factories and considerably increased the population of the working class.

Capitalism became the dominant mode of production in Barcelona and has maintained its eminence since then. Along with industrialization, the process of urbanization was also very fast and influenced the lives of the people of Barcelona. This work reflects exactly what was happening in the cities of Spain with wduardo and modernization.

The proofs of the court and memories of Miranda give us detail about the life rduardo Barcelona between the years and They were full of social tensions, anarchist rebellions marked by class conflicts. He does this by marrying Maria Rosa Savolta, the daughter of the main shareholder of the Savolta factory.

Davolta unknowingly becomes Lepprince’s puppet and marries Maria Coral, Lepprince’s another girlfriend so that he can continue his relationship with eduqrdo despite his marriage with Edusrdo Rosa Savolta. After the other shareholders of the Savolta plant are killed, Lepprince gains almost exclusive control over the business, which Corresponding Author: However, anarchist rebellions, general work strikes and the end of the war caused the demise of the plant Savolta and Lepprince.

Before Lepprince could be declared bankruptcy, an anarchist agitation ended his life, burning the factory along with him. The city has also witnessed the development of both the bourgeoisie and workers socialist movements.

In order to understand exactly how this historical novel deals with the questions of Spanish society, I intend to see the content of the novel from the perspective of Marx. According to the article of 6th October that was published on the newspaper La voz de la justicia of Barcelona, the writer clearly shows two pictures of Spain. On one hand he is very happy to mention that there is freedom of press, constitutional guarantees, universal adult franchise and the nation is civilized.

On the other hand he says that his land has entered into dark ages as there is exploitation of worker by the powerful. The workers who are illiterate, who are not able to understand the present situation are the victims of the capitalism which has started expanding in the city. The capitalist society does not address the problems of the workers.

It does not work to create awareness among workers so that they know their rights. The custody of social justice is held by the ruling class which exploits the workers in factories like that of Savolta factory in order to earn profit. According to Mendoxa, the worker is not free since he is forced to work for the capitalist in order to survive.

Such ideology is a distortion of reality, a false picture of society. It binds members of society to the contradictions and conflict of interest which are built into their relationships. As a result they tend to accept their situation as normal and natural, right and proper. The class which has the means of material production at its disposal, has control at the same time ever the means of mental production, so that in consequence the ideas o f those who lack the means of mental production are, in general, subject to it.


The employer-employee relationship is not equal. It is wduardo exploitive relationship. Pajarito de Soto also believes that freedom and equality exists only upto a certain limit. The workers have to protest for getting these rights. There working condition is deplorable, the salaries are not adequate.

However, the real democracy lies from the fact that there is political freedom, equality and the rule of law. These principles must reflected in all the citizens of country so that they live a dignified life. The class division was clearly visible from the fact that in order to maintain their privileged position in the society, the state machinery would savopta any kind of injustice or suffering to others. For example by inflation the poorest would suffer the most as their salaries remain constant.

According to Karl Marx, in all stratified societies, there are two major social groups, a ruling class and a subject class. The power of the ruling class derives from its ownership and control of the forces of production. As a result, there is a basic conflict of interest between the two classes. The various institutions of society such as the legal and political systems are instruments of ruling class domination and serve to further its interests.

From a Marxian view, a class is a social group whose members share the same relationship to the forces of production. Thus during the feudal epoch, there are two main classes distinguished by their relationship to land, the major force of production. They are the feudal nobility who own the land and the landless serfs who work the land.

Eduardo Mendoza’s La Verdad Sobre El Caso Savolta: An Experiencial Journey Through Barcelona.

Similarly, in the capitalist era, there are two main classes, the bourgeoisie or capitalist class which owns the forces of production and the proletariat or working class whose members own only their labour which they hire to the bourgeoisie in return for wages. This situation can be seen from the following sentences.

Hay que ser un necio para confiar en la perdurabilidad de su afecto. Their kindness, affection and signs of interest are mirages. You have to be a fool to trust in the endurance of your affection.

And that happens because the links that can exist between a rich and a poor are not reciprocal. The misery, the famine, the illiteracy and the pain that the people receive is actually not because of them but because of the ruling class ideology.

It is this group which oppress you, exploit you, betray you and if necessary, they kill you. Nemesio says that he knows the names of illustrious persons who have the eduafdo hands of blood of the workpeople but one cannot see them, because white suede gloves cover them.

Gloves brought from Paris and paid with your money. They pay you so that you do not die of famine and could keep on working from sunrise to sunset. The money or the profit they will not give it to mendoxa as this is the true nature of a capitalist society. Here the mendozq class is oppressed by the powerful but there is also another kind of oppression, which is like passing on the oppression that the man has suffered, oppressing in turn the female.

This female has no relief as she suffers from famine, the cold and the misery that causes the bourgeois development. In the earliest form of human society, the land and its products were communally owned. From a Marxian perspective, the relationship between the major social classes is one of mutual dependence and conflict. Thus in capitalist society, the bourgeoisie and proletariat are dependent upon each other.


The wage labourer must sell his labour power in order to survive since he does not own a part of menxoza forces of production and lacks the means to produce goods independently. However, the mutual dependency of the two classes is not a relationship of equal or symmetrical reciprocity. Instead, it is sohre relationship of exploiter and exploited, oppressor and oppressed.

In particular, the ruling class gains at the expense of the subject ssvolta and there is therefore a conflict of interest between them.

One crucial characteristic of capitalism, according to Marx, is that it exploits individual workers. Following Ricardo, Marx adopted a labour theory of value. This theory held that the value of any good depended upon the amount of cwso spent producing it.

Marx provided a second, and similar, perspective on surplus value. He noted that the essence of capitalism was to take money and use this money to buy things labour and machines. Marx held that the appropriation of surplus value by the owners of the capital constitutes exploitation.

On the other hand as the business was doing well, the problems related to the working condition were witnessed. Los obreros estaban quejosos: Marx says that capital, as such, produces nothing.

Only labour produces wealth. Yet the wages paid to the workers for their labour are well below the value of the goods they produce. Since they are non-producers, the bourgeoisie are therefore exploiting the proletariat, the real producers of wealth. Marx maintained that in all class societies, the ruling class exploits and oppresses the subject class. In the industrial capitalist society there is dehumanization of worker and his living conditions become deplorable.

The productive labour is the primary, most vital human activity. According to Marx, man is essentially a creative being who realizes his essence and affirms himself in labour or production, a creative activity carried out in cooperation with other and by which the external world is transformed. This occurs when man regards the products of his labour as commodities, as articles for sale in the market place. The objects of his creation are then seen to control his existence.

They are seen to be subject to impersonal forces, such as the law of supply and demand, over which man has little or no control. In this way man is estranged from the object he produces, he becomes alienated form the most vital human activity, productive labour. Firstly, the worker is alienated from the product of his labour, since what he produces is appropriated by the capitalist and the worker has no control over it.

Secondly, the worker is alienated from the act of production itself because all decisions as to how production is to be organized are taken by the capitalist.

In fact, work becomes a commodity to be sold and its only value to the worker is its saleability. The labour therefore is not voluntary but forced, it is forced labour.


Thirdly, in addition to the fact that wage labour alienates man from his product and his productive activity, which distinguishes eduarso from animals, he also becomes alienated from his people. The capitalist system stratifies man, destroys the human qualities and renders man to a state worse than animal.

Fourthly, the form of wage labour prevalent in the capitalist society also leads to social alienation.