Page 1. Page 2. Transcript of telephone conversation between Lt. Gen. John Hull and Col. L. E. Seeman, Aug. 13, , (Photo from U.S. National Archives, RG AEC); Source=~ nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB/hiroshimajpg; Date=

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Following a firebombing campaign that destroyed many Japanese cities, the Allies prepared for a costly invasion of Japan.

Together with the United Kingdom and the Republic of China, the United States called for a surrender of Japan in the Potsdam Declaration on eud Julythreatening Japan with “prompt and utter destruction”. The Japanese government ignored this ultimatum, and the United States deployed two nuclear weapons developed by the Manhattan Project.

File:Hiroshima – Percentages of – Wikimedia Commons

Within the first two to four months of the bombings, the acute effects killed 90,—, people in Hiroshima and 60,—80, in Nagasaki, with roughly half of the deaths in each city occurring on the first day. During the following months, large numbers died from the effect of burns, radiation sickness, and other injuries, compounded by illness.


In both cities, most of the dead were civilians, although Hiroshima had a sizeable garrison. The bombings led, in part, to post-war Japan’s adopting Three Non-Nuclear Principles, forbidding the nation from nuclear armament.

The role of the bombings in Japan’s surrender and their ethical justification are still debated. On August 9,Nagasaki was the target of the United States’ second atomic bomb attack and the second detonation of a plutonium bomb; the first was tested in central New Mexico, USA at This bomb was supposed to be more destructive than “Little Boy” but nsebb in a nsarchiiv, and therefore did roughly the same amount of damage as Little Boy.

New temples were built, as well as new churches due to an increase in the presence of Christianity. Some of the rubble was left as a memorial, such as a one-legged torii gate and an arch near ground zero. New structures were also raised as memorials, such as the Atomic Bomb Museum. Nagasaki remains first and foremost a port city, supporting a rich ship building industry and setting a strong example of perseverance and peace.


File:Hiroshima – Percentages of Destruction.jpg

Google Earth mapping of Hiroshima bombing archives. Retrieved 3 January Google Earth mapping of Nagasaki bombing archives.

Truman Presidential Library and Museum. Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. The Story of Hiroshima and Nagasaki”. National Science Digital Library. Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues. The short film Children of Hiroshima Reel 1 of 2 is available for nsaebg download at the Internet Archive [more] http: Memories of Hiroshima and Nagasaki – a quest for peace.