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Hydrological distributed modeling is key point for a comprehensive assessment of the feedback between the dynamics of the hydrological cycle, climate conditions and land use. Such modeling results are markedly relevant in the fields of water resources management, natural hazards and oil and gas industry. This an is located over the intertropical convergence zone and is characterized by special meteorological conditions, with fast water fluxes over the year.
It has been subject to significant land use changes, as a result of intense economical activities, i. The model employees a record of 12 years of acuerxo precipitation and evapotranspiration data as inputs. Streamflow data monitored across the same time frame are used for model calibration. The latter is performed by considering data from to Model validation then relies on observations from to The robustness of our analyses zgn based on the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient values of this metric being 0.
Aucerdo results reveal high water storage capacity in the soil, and a marked subsurface runoff, consistent with the characteristics of the agh types in the regions. A significant influence on runoff response of the basin to topographical factors represented in the model is evidenced.
Our calibrated model provides relevant indications about recharge in the region, which is important to quantify the interaction between surface water and groundwater, specially during the dry season, which is more relevant in climate-change and climate-variability scenarios. Petroleum systems of the Upper Magdalena ValleyColombia.
In the Upper Magdalena ValleyColombiafour petroleum systems were identified. Two petroleum systems are located in the Girardot sub-basin and the other two in the Neiva sub- basin.
Limestones laterally changing to shales of the lower part of the Villeta Gp, deposited during Albian and Turonian agj flooding events, constitutes the main source rocks of the oil families. Seal rocks are Cretaceous and Paleocene shales. Overburden includes the Cretaceous rocks and the Tertiary molasse deposited simultaneously with development of two opposite verging thrust systems during Cenozoic time.
These deformation events were responsible for trap creation. Except for the Villarrica area, where the source rock reached maturity during the Paleocene, generation occurred during Miocene.
Two oil families are identified, each in both sub-basins: One derived from a clay-rich source and the second from a carbonate-rich source acyerdo lithofacies an the lower part of Villeta Gp. Geochemical source-rock to oil correlations are demonstrated for the three of the petroleum systems.
Up-dip lateral migration distances are relatively short and faults served as vertical migration pathways. A huge amount 0660 oil was probably degraded at surface, as a result of Miocene deformation and erosion.
Relationship between petrographic pore types and core measurements in sandstones of the Monserrate Formation, upper Magdalena ValleyColombia. Patterns of porosity in sandstones of the Monserrate Formation Upper Magdalena Valley exposed in polished blocks have been digitally recorded using an sgn processor coupled to a scanning electron microscope operated in back scatter electron mode. Additionally, porosity, permeability and response to mercury injection-capillary pressure tests were measured on some of the imaged samples.
Changes in the resulting pore type proportions were strongly associated with changes in the mercury porosimetry curves. From the image processing data, five pore types, sufficient to include all of the variability in size and shape of the patterns of porosity, were identified. Variations in the aduerdo of pares of each type per unit cross aceurdo area were related to variations in permeability. The resultant agj with mercury porosimetry demonstrated that pares of the same type tends to form microcircuits characterized by a limited throat size range.
Permeability modeling showed that intergranular Pare Types 2 and 4 secondary porosity resulting from carbonate dissolution are responsible for permeability in the 0,01 – 0,1 0 Darcy range. Type 5 pares large molds slightly contribute to permeability, except in coarse grained rocks where they are efficiently connected by micro fractures. Combination of RNAseq and SNP nanofluidic array reveals the center of genetic diversity of cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri in the upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia and its clonality.
Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Genetic diversity within the FPR pathogen population may allow the population to adapt to changing environmental conditions and adapt to enhanced resistance in the host plant.
A total of 88 polymorphic SNPs were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of M. Absence of heterozygosity for the 88 SNP markers indicates reproduction in M. The upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia showed the highest levels of genetic diversity with 20 distinct genotypes of which 13 were limited to this region, and indicates this region as the possible center of origin for M. Moniliophthora roreri is the fungal pathogen that causes frosty pod rot FPR disease of Theobroma cacao L.
Implications on the evolution of magmatic arcs in the NW Andes.
Field, petrographic, and geochemical characterization along with U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Jurassic plutons exposed in the Upper Magdalena Valley Colombia allowed recognizing distinct western and eastern suites formed in at least three magmatic pulses. The western plutons crop out between the eastern flank of the Central Cordillera and the Las Minas range, being limited by the Avirama and the Betania-El Agrado faults. The western suite comprises a quartz monzonite – quartz monzodiorite – quartz diorite series and subordinate monzogranites.
Chemically, the rocks are high-K calc-alkaline I-type granitoids some reaching the shoshonitic series with metaluminous of magnesium affinity. Trace-element tectonic discrimination is consistent with magmatism in a continental arc environment.
Most rocks of this suite crystallized between and Ma Early Jurassic, Pliensbachianbut locally some plutons yielded younger ages between and Ma Early Jurassic, Toarcian. The eastern suite crops out in the eastern margin of the Upper Magdalena Valleyeast of the Betania – El Agrado fault. Plutons of this unit belong to the monzogranite series with rock types ranging between syenogranites and granodiorites.
They are high-K calc-alkaline continental granitoids, some metaluminous and some peraluminous, related to I-type granites generated in a volcanic arc. Crystallization of the suite was between and Ma Middle Jurassic, Aalenian-Bajocianbut locally these rocks contain zircon with earlier inherited ages related to the magmatic pulse of the western suite between and Ma Early Jurassic, Toarcian.
The evolution of the Jurassic plutons in the Upper Magdalena Valley is best explained by onset or increase in subduction erosion of the accretionary prism. This explains the eastward migration of the arc away from the trench. Subduction of prism sediments increased the water flux from the subducting slab, decreasing solidus temperatures, therefore. Una nueva especie de Bolitoglossa Caudata: Plethodontidae de las selvas del Magdalena Medio en Colombia.
La Victoria, Departamento de Caldas, m. La Miel River, Mpio.
acuerdo 060 de 2001 pdf to word
The new species is mainly recognized by the presence of a robust body, extensively webbed hands and toes, a brownish ventral chromatic pattern with small darker brown and cream dots, non-protuberant eyes and a relatively large size. Geochemical evaluation of the middle Magdalena basing Colombia. The chemical composition of 25 crude oils from Tertiary reservoirs and 12 rock extracts from five organic-rich Cretaceous formations in the middle Magdalena Basin, Colombia were studied in detail by geochemical methods in order to understand their genetic relationships.
Each group occurs in different geographic locations. Oils were mainly derived from calcareous, siliciclastic and mixture of these two facies of the Upper Cretaceous La Luna Formation. Source-oil correlation is supported by sterane and terpane distributions of and carbon isotope ratios.
Some oils in the eastern margin contain relatively higher concentrations of higher plant indicators than the remaining oil samples.
This documentation supports the interpretation that the Middle Magdalena oils have been generated ‘locally’, as opposed to have migrated from the region of the Eastern Cordillera. Biomarker maturity parameters indicate that the majority of oils were generated in the early thermal maturity oil window except the Colorado oil, which was generated in the middle thermal maturity oil window. Oil maturity data also supports the short migration distances of oils from the early-mature source rocks to the reservoir rocks.
The composition of some oils e. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Middle and Upper Magdalena Basins, Colombia Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 0. Impact analysis of satellite rainfall products on flow simulations in the Magdalena River Basin, Colombia.
The river faces water resources allocation challenges, which require reliable hydrological assessments.
However, hydrological analysis and model simulations are hampered by insufficient and uncertain knowledge of the actual rainfall fields. In this research the reliability of groundbased acuerdl, different satellite products of rainfall and their combinations are tested for their impact on the discharge simulations of the Magdalena River.
Two different satellite rainfall products from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission TRMM, have been compared and merged with the ground-based measurements and their impact on the Magdalena river flows quantified using agnn Representative Elementary Watershed REW distributed hydrological model. Prevalencia del suicidio femenino en el departamento del Magdalena Colombia: Full Text Available Title: Prevalence of suicide girls in the department of Magdalena Colombia: Se ha definido como aquella conducta en la cual el ser humano que logra terminar con su vida de aagn voluntaria.
Se concluye que la prevalencia del suicidio femenino en el periodo estudiado fue del Suicide is defined as that human behavior that does end his life voluntarily. We conducted a retrospective, longitudinal study, based on records supplied by the Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Santa Marta region for the period of suicides by women for the Department of Magdalena.
This investigation found that during the period to in the department of Magdalena showed suicides, of which 30 It is concluded that the prevalence of female suicide in the study period was Suicide; sex; women; prevalence. Local magnitude scale for Valle Medio del Magdalena region, Colombia. A local Magnitude ML scale for Valle Medio del Magdalena VMM region was defined by using high quality earthquakes located at VMM area and inversion of amplitude sgn of horizontal components of 17 stations seismic broad band stations, simulated in a Wood-Anderson seismograph.
Acuerdo de AGN by Adrian Vargas on Prezi
The derived local magnitude scale for VMM region was: Higher values of ML were obtained for VMM region compared with those obtained with the current formula used for ML determination, and with California formula.
Moreover, with this new ML scale the seismicity caused by tectonic or fracking activity at VMM region can be monitored more accurately. Una nueva especie de bolitoglossa caudata: Pollution by metals and toxicity assessment using Caenorhabditis elegans in sediments from the Magdalena River, Colombia. It receives effluents from multiple sources along its course such as contaminant agricultural and industrial discharges.
To evaluate the toxicity profile of Magdalena River sediments through endpoints such as survival, locomotion, and growth, wild type strains of Caenorhabditis elegans were exposed to aqueous extracts of the sediments. To identify changes in gene expression, GFP transgenic strains were used as reporter genes. Physiological and biochemical data were correlated with metal concentration in the sediments, identifying patterns of toxicity along the course of the river.